• Specific Learning Disability

     

    Early Warning Signs for Learning Disabilities
     
      
    • Late talking, compared to other children.
    • Pronunciation problems.
    • Slow vocabulary growth, often unable to find the right word.
    • Difficulty rhyming words.
    • Trouble learning numbers, the alphabet, days of the week.
    • Extremely restless and easily distracted.
    • Trouble interacting with peers.
    • Poor ability to follow directions or routines.
    • Slow to learn the connection between letters and sounds.
    • Confuses basic words (run, eat, want).
    • Makes consistent reading and spelling errors including letter reversals (b/d), inversions (m/w), transpositions (felt/left), and substitutions (house/home).
    • Transposes number sequences and confuses arithmetic signs (+, -, x, /, =).
    • Slow recall of facts.
    • Slow to learn new skills, relies heavily on memorization.
    • Impulsiveness, lack of planning.
    • Unstable pencil grip.
    • Trouble learning about time.
    • Poor coordination, unaware of physical surroundings, prone to accidents.
     
     

    Definitions:

    The Federal definition further states that learning disabilities include "such conditions as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia." According to the law, learning disabilities do not include learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities; mental retardation; or environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage. Definitions of learning disabilities also vary among states.
     

    Characteristics:

    • Spoken language: Delays, disorders, or discrepancies in listening and speaking.

    • Reasoning: Difficulty in organizing and integrating thoughts.

    • Organization skills: Difficulty in organizing all facets of learning.

    • Hyperactivity

    • Perceptual Motor impairments: Difficulty with both fine and gross motor skills

    • General Coordination Deficits

    • Impulsivity

    • Emotional lability

    • Specific Academic problems

      • Arithmetic: Difficulty in performing arithmetic functions or in comprehending basic concepts.

      • Written language: Difficulties with reading, writing, and spelling

    • Disorders in Attention Span: short, distractibility, preservation

    • Equivocal Neurological Signs and EEG Irregularities

    • Disorders of Memory and Thinking